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形成,风暴,规范和表演——了解团队形成的阶段

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发表于 2018-8-10 10:10:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

你不能指望新团队在第一次合并时表现良好。

组建团队需要时间,成员经常会经历可识别的阶段,因为他们从陌生人的集合变为具有共同目标的团结团体。布鲁斯塔克曼的成形,风暴,诺明和表演模型描述了这些阶段。当您了解它时,您可以帮助您的新团队更快地发挥作用。

在本文和音频中,我们将介绍如何使用此模型构建高效团队。


 

您可以使用iTunes订阅我们的播客。单击iTunes左上角的菜单图标,然后选择“显示菜单栏”。然后选择文件>订阅播客,并将此URL粘贴到框中:https://www.mindtools.com/communities/plk406t72/MindToolsCareerExcellenceClub.xml

关于模型

心理学家布鲁斯·塔克曼(Bruce Tuckman)在1965年的文章“ 小群体中的发展序列 ”中首次提出了令人难忘的短语“形成,风暴,规范和表演” 他用它来描述大多数团队走向高绩效的道路。后来,他又增加了第五阶段“休会”(有时被称为“哀悼”)。

让我们更详细地看一下每个阶段。

成型

在这个阶段,大多数团队成员都是积极和礼貌的。有些人感到焦虑,因为他们还没有完全理解团队会做什么工作。其他人对未来的任务感到兴奋。

作为领导者,您在此阶段发挥主导作用,因为团队成员的角色和责任并不明确。

这个阶段可以持续一段时间,因为人们开始一起工作,并且他们努力去了解他们的新同事。

攻坚

接下来,团队进入猛烈的阶段,人们开始反对在形成阶段建立的界限。这是许多球队失败的阶段。

在团队成员的自然工作方式之间存在冲突的情况下,风暴通常会开始。人们可能出于各种原因以不同的方式工作,但如果不同的工作方式导致无法预料的问题,他们可能会感到沮丧。

在其他情况下也可能发生暴力。例如,团队成员可能会挑战您的权威,或者在他们的角色得到澄清时担任职务。或者,如果您没有明确定义团队的工作方式,那么人们可能会感到不堪重负,或者他们对您使用的方法感到不安。

有些人可能质疑团队目标的价值,他们可能会拒绝承担任务。

坚持手头任务的团队成员可能会遇到压力,特别是因为他们没有既定流程的支持或与同事的牢固关系。

拉平

渐渐地,团队进入了规范阶段。这是人们开始解决分歧,欣赏同事的优势,尊重你作为领导者的权威的时候。

现在你的团队成员彼此了解得更好,他们可以一起社交,他们可以互相提出帮助并提供建设性的反馈。人们对团队目标的承诺越来越强,你就会开始看到良好的进展。

风暴和规范之间往往存在长时间的重叠,因为随着新任务的出现,团队可能会从暴风雨阶段重新陷入行为。

表演

当团队努力工作而没有摩擦时,团队就会进入表演阶段,以实现团队的目标。您设置的结构和流程很好地支持了这一点。

作为领导者,您可以委派大部分工作,并且可以专注于开发团队成员。

在这个阶段很容易成为团队的一员,加入或离开的人不会破坏绩效。

休会

许多团队最终将达到这个阶段。例如,项目团队只存在一段固定的时间,甚至永久团队也可能通过组织重组解散。

喜欢日常工作或与同事建立了密切工作关系的团队成员可能会觉得这个阶段很难,特别是如果他们的未来现在看起来不确定。

发现这篇文章有用吗?

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使用工具

作为团队领导者,您的目标是尽快帮助您的员工表现良好。要做到这一点,您需要在每个阶段改变您的方法。

请按照以下步骤确保您在正确的时间做正确的事情:

  1. 从上面的描述中确定您的团队所处的团队发展阶段。
  2. 现在考虑一下你需要做些什么来迈向表演阶段。下面的图1将帮助您了解自己的角色,并思考如何推动团队向前发展。
  3. 安排定期审查您的团队所在的位置,并适当调整您的行为和领导方法。

图1:不同群体形成阶段的领导活动

阶段活动
成型
攻坚
  • 建立流程和结构。
  • 建立信任良好的关系 团队成员之间。
  • 解决冲突如果它们发生,它们会很快。提供支持,尤其是那些不太安全的团队成员。
  • 保持积极的态度 面对领导力或团队目标的挑战,我们必须坚定不移。 
  • 解释“形成,冲击,规范和表现”的想法,以便人们理解为什么会出现问题,以便他们看到将来情况会好转。教练团队成员自信解决冲突的技巧,这是必要的。
  • 使用心理测量指标,如Myers-BriggsMargerison-McCann团队管理简介 帮助人们了解不同的工作方式和优势。
拉平
  • 退一步,帮助团队成员承担责任为实现目标而取得进展。(这是安排团队建设的好时机 事件。)
表演
  • 代表任务和项目尽你所能。一旦团队取得良好成绩,您应该尽可能轻松一点。您现在可以开始关注其他目标和工作领域。
休会
  • 花点时间来庆祝团队的成就 - 你可以再次与你的一些人一起工作,如果人们积极地看待过去的经历,这将会容易得多。

关键点

团队形成通常遵循易于识别的阶段,称为“形成,攻击,规范和表演”。创造这个令人难忘的短语的心理学家布鲁斯塔克曼后来又增加了第五个阶段,“休会”或“哀悼”。

您可以使用Tuckman的模型帮助您的团队尽快达到表演阶段。

首先,您确定您的团队所处的发展阶段。然后,您使用策略将团队移动到团队形成过程的下一阶段。通过专注和努力,您将很快拥有一支高绩效团队。(来源:Mindtools网站)。

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-10 10:13:19 | 显示全部楼层

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The Mind Tools Content Team By the
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Content Team (326)       
Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing
Understanding the Stages of Team Formation


You can't expect a new team to perform well when it first comes together.

Forming a team takes time, and members often go through recognizable stages as they change from being a collection of strangers to a united group with common goals. Bruce Tuckman's Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing model describes these stages. When you understand it, you can help your new team become effective more quickly.

In this article and audio, we'll look at how you can use this model to build a highly productive team.

Download M4A


You can subscribe to our podcasts using iTunes. Click the menu icon in the upper left corner of iTunes and select Show Menu Bar. Then choose File > Subscribe to Podcast, and paste this URL into the box: https://www.mindtools.com/commun ... rExcellenceClub.xml

About the Model
Psychologist Bruce Tuckman first came up with the memorable phrase "forming, storming, norming, and performing" in his 1965 article, "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups." He used it to describe the path that most teams follow on their way to high performance. Later, he added a fifth stage, "adjourning" (which is sometimes known as "mourning").

Let's look at each stage in more detail.

Forming
In this stage, most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven't fully understood what work the team will do. Others are simply excited about the task ahead.
As leader, you play a dominant role at this stage, because team members' roles and responsibilities aren't clear.

This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues.

Storming
Next, the team moves into the storming phase, where people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.

Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members' natural working styles. People may work in different ways for all sorts of reasons but, if differing working styles cause unforeseen problems, they may become frustrated.

Storming can also happen in other situations. For example, team members may challenge your authority, or jockey for position as their roles are clarified. Or, if you haven't defined clearly how the team will work, people may feel overwhelmed by their workload, or they could be uncomfortable with the approach you're using.

Some may question the worth of the team's goal, and they may resist taking on tasks.

Team members who stick with the task at hand may experience stress, particularly as they don't have the support of established processes or strong relationships with their colleagues.

Norming
Gradually, the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues' strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.

Now that your team members know one another better, they may socialize together, and they are able to ask one another for help and provide constructive feedback. People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal, and you start to see good progress towards it.

There is often a prolonged overlap between storming and norming, because, as new tasks come up, the team may lapse back into behavior from the storming stage.

Performing
The team reaches the performing stage, when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team's goal. The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.

As leader, you can delegate much of your work, and you can concentrate on developing team members.

It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won't disrupt performance.

Adjourning
Many teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organizational restructuring.

Team members who like routine, or who have developed close working relationships with colleagues, may find this stage difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain.

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Using the Tool
As a team leader, your aim is to help your people perform well, as quickly as possible. To do this, you'll need to change your approach at each stage.

Follow the steps below to ensure that you're doing the right thing at the right time:

Identify the stage of team development that your team is at from the descriptions above.
Now consider what you need to do to move towards the performing stage. Figure 1, below, will help you understand your role, and think about how you can move the team forward.
Schedule regular reviews of where your team is, and adjust your behavior and leadership approach appropriately.
Figure 1: Leadership Activities at Different Group Formation Stages
Stage        Activities
Forming       
Direct the team, and establish clear objectives, both for the team as a whole   and for individual team members.
Storming       
Establish processes and structures.
Build trust   and good relationships   between team members.
Resolve conflicts   swiftly if they occur. Provide support, especially to those team members who are less secure.
Remain positive   and firm in the face of challenges to your leadership, or to the team's goal.
Explain the "forming, storming, norming, and performing" idea, so that people understand why problems are occurring, and so that they see that things will get better in the future. Coach   team members in assertiveness   and conflict resolution skills  , where this is necessary.
Use psychometric indicators such as Myers-Briggs   and the Margerison-McCann Team Management Profile   to help people learn about different work styles and strengths.
Norming       
Step back and help team members to take responsibility   for progress towards the goal. (This is a good time to arrange a team-building   event.)
Performing       
Delegate   tasks and projects as far as you can. Once the team is achieving well, you should aim to have as light a touch as possible. You will now be able to start focusing on other goals and areas of work.
Adjourning       
Take the time to celebrate the team's achievements – you may work with some of your people again, and this will be much easier if people view past experiences positively.
Key Points
Team formation usually follows easily recognizable stages, known as "forming, storming, norming, and performing." Psychologist Bruce Tuckman, who created this memorable phrase, later added a fifth stage, "adjourning" or "mourning."

You can use Tuckman's model to help your team reach the performing stage as quickly as possible.

First you identify the stage of development that your team is at. Then, you use strategies that move your team through to the next stage in the team formation process. With focus and hard work, you'll quickly have a high-performing team.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-10 10:14:35 | 显示全部楼层
以上为英文原版。
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